Woman in a relationship with domestic violence.

When Does Domestic Violence Become a Felony?

Domestic violence – known under Texas law as Assault Family Violence –  is one of the most common types of offenses. Domestic violence can either be considered a misdemeanor or a felony, which can impact your consequences. But how do we determine the classification of each incident?

Domestic violence includes either physical or sexual violence of someone in a dating relationship (or former relationship) with the accused. This can include:

  • Boyfriends
  • Girlfriends
  • Fiances
  • Spouses
  • Dates
  • Person who resides under the same roof as the victim
  • Person with whom the victim has a child

Sometimes this can also include violence between those previously engaged in a relationship (e.g. ex-spouses) or between those who previously lived together (ex-roommates). 

What Does Domestic Violence Look Like?

There are many different acts of domestic violence. They can include:

  • Pushing
  • Shoving
  • Hitting someone with an object
  • Throwing an object at someone
  • Punching
  • Choking
  • Slapping

In other words, domestic violence crimes are those ordinarily considered assault, when not involving anyone in the special class of defendants. But while domestic violence is completely wrong, sometimes those accused of such acts are up against a tough system that sometimes finds them guilty before proven innocent. 

False Allegations

As serious as domestic violence is, sometimes those involved in contentious divorce or custody cases present false allegations as a means to get what they want out of the situation by painting the other party in a really bad light. 

Arrests without Evidence

Since domestic violence is so prevalent and widely understood, many law enforcement agencies may arrest a defendant with minimal – or no – evidence such as clear injuries or witnesses. Often law enforcement may rely merely on the victim’s statement. 

Lack of Due Process

Since law enforcement often moves quickly when arresting those accused of domestic violence, many times the defendants are immediately placed in jail for a period of time, have orders of protection granted against them, and are subsequently forced out of their homes and normal routines. 

The prosecutor may decide to press on with charges on behalf of the State of Texas even if the alleged victim refuses to cooperate. In such a case he or she will have to demonstrate credible evidence that can be obtained on his or her own.

Felony vs. Misdemeanor

Depending on the allegations, the case will either be filed a misdemeanor. Most first-time domestic violence cases are misdemeanors. However, a case can be a felony where a defendant has a prior conviction for assault family violence, there is an allegation of choking or an allegation that a deadly weapon was used. 

While misdemeanors usually have a maximum sentence of up to twelve months in jail as well as a fine, felony convictions generally have more severe penalties, such as longer incarceration and higher fines. 

In addition to possible jail or prison time, alleged abusers are often required to participate in a domestic violence intervention program or to take anger management classes. In other cases, a defendant may be ordered to complete a community service requirement, pay a fine, and follow an order of protection. 

The Attorneys at Ceja Law Firm Help Those in Houston Facing Felony Charges of Domestic Violence

If you or a loved one is facing allegations of domestic violence, no matter the classification, it is extremely important that you consult with a qualified Texas criminal defense attorney as soon as possible. A criminal defense attorney can help you to fight these charges, negotiate a plea deal, minimize jail time, and build a solid defense. Additionally, if your rights have been violated, an attorney may be able to help you to get the charges dismissed. 

At Ceja Law Firm PLLC, we understand the seriousness of such a criminal charge and the impact that it can have on the rest of your life. That’s why we will work to help you obtain the best possible outcome. To learn more or to schedule a free consultation, contact us today!

Man committing petty theft.

Are Shoplifting and Petty Theft the Same Thing?

Texas, like most states, determines the classification and punishment of a theft offense, like petty theft or shoplifting, and based upon the value of what is stolen and sometimes the type of property that has been stolen. 

What is Petty Theft?

Texas state law defines petty theft as those crimes that involve smaller amounts of property stolen. Therefore when someone shoplifts, it doesn’t always classify as petty theft. Each instance is dependent upon the value of the property that has been stolen as well as the defendant’s criminal record. 

However, there are various types of shoplifting theft offenses, including the following:

 

1. Misdemeanor Theft

 

One of the most common shoplifting charges is misdemeanor theft, which falls into three categories

  • Class C – The value of stolen property is less than $50.
  • Class B – The value of stolen property is between $50 and $500.
  • Class A – The value of the stolen property is between $500 and $1,500.

2. State Jail Felony Theft

 

 

When the value of the stolen property falls between $1,500 and $20,000 you may be charged with a state jail felony. If convicted you can face imprisonment in a state jail for anywhere from 6 months to 2 years. Additionally, you can face fines of up to $10,000. 

 

3. Felony Theft

 

The most serious charge that a shoplifter can face is felony theft in the third, second, or first degree. Felony theft is rather uncommon in shoplifting cases due to the high value of the property stolen. However, if a shoplifter takes something of very high value or steals from the same retailer multiple times, they could face this charge. 

  • Third Degree – The value of the stolen property is between $20,000 and $100,000.
  • Second Degree – The value of the stolen property is between $100,000 and $200,000.
  • First Degree – The value of the stolen property is $200,000 or more.

Criminal History Makes an Impact

It is also important to understand that an individual’s criminal history can make an impact on both the charges and penalties for shoplifting, resulting in increased penalties. Aside from facing possible jail time and paying large fines, a criminal conviction for theft of any kind can impact your future indefinitely, from difficulty securing a job to finding housing. It can also irreparably damage your reputation.

The Attorneys at Ceja Law Firm Help Those in Houston Who Have Been Charged with a Theft Offense

If you have been charged with a theft offense in Texas, it is important to take the situation very seriously.

At Ceja Law Firm PLLC, we understand the serious nature of such a criminal charge and the impact that it can have on your life. That’s why we will work to help you obtain the best possible outcome. To learn more or to schedule a free consultation, contact us today!

Man meeting with his probation officer.

Defining Probation in Houston

Probation is a court-ordered sanction that someone is put on when they have been convicted of a crime. When an individual is placed on probation, he or she is still allowed to remain in the community but must report to a probation officer. It is important to note that this option is not always on the table. Some crimes do not allow for this choice and the offender is ordered straight to jail or prison. 

The conditions vary depending upon each case. Such conditions may include:

  • Reporting to an officer
  • Fines
  • Counseling
  • Community Service
  • Restitution
  • Restrictions on drugs
  • Restrictions on alcohol
  • Restrictions on weapons
  • Jail time

Types

There are two types of probation. The first involves serving time in jail and then being placed on probation once you have completed your time there. Sometimes though the time spent in jail is lessened because the offender will be placed on probation. The other type uses it as an alternative to jail. It can actually last longer than jail time, so jail is sometimes preferable to certain offenders. 

It is used in order to ensure the safety of the greater public. Sometimes people break their probation by not complying with the conditions that have been made mandatory as part of it. When an individual violates their probation they are sent back in front of the judge who may send him or her to jail or prison as a result

Probation Officers

The job of a probation officer is to supervise and check in on (often by meeting) with the individual who is on probation. These officers have many job duties such as the following:

  • Overseeing the individual’s rehabilitation
  • Preparing reports that the court will utilize
  • Visiting the home of the individual 
  • Monitoring the individual to ensure compliance
  • Assessing the individual for risks that they may pose
  • Assessing the individual for needs they should have met
  • Ensuring that the individual has access to any services he or she may need
  • Administering drug tests
  • Supporting the individual in moving in a productive direction

The Attorneys at Ceja Law Firm Help Those in Houston Who Have Been Charged with a Crime

At Ceja Law Firm PLLC, we understand the seriousness of a criminal charge and the impact that it can have on your life. That’s why we will work to help you obtain the best possible outcome. To learn more or to schedule a free consultation, contact us today!

Attorney explaining the law of parties to client.

What Is the “Law of Parties?”

If you were ever punished along with your sibling for something that they did when you were with them, then you already have a slight understanding of the Texas “law of parties.” The law of parties allows for one individual to be held criminally liable for actions committed by others. 

Under Texas Penal Code §7.01, everyone who participates in a crime is considered to be a party and each person is therefore criminally responsible for the offense committed. There are various situations in which you may be considered criminally responsible for the behavior of others. These situations include:

  • Causing or helping an innocent person to engage in criminal activity
  • Purposely encouraging, assisting in the commission of, or failing to attempt to reasonable stop the occurrence of a crime that you have a legal duty to prevent
  • Intentionally helping, directing, encouraging, promoting, or soliciting another to commit a crime or to also do the same

Similar to the Law of Parties, another law in Texas is the felony murder law. The felony murder law says that if you have conspired with others to commit a felony, you may be held responsible for any other felony that he or she commits during the commission of the originally planned felony. 

For example, if you decide to commit a robbery of a store while armed with a gun, if your co-conspirator shoots and kills the clerk, you can also be held responsible for murder even if that was not a part of your plan. It is very important to understand that in Texas, the felony murder law also applies to capital offenses. So in the same situation, if your co-conspirator shoots and kills the store clerk, you can face first-degree murder charges and even the death penalty. 

Being Present vs. Being Complicit

There is a difference however in simply being at the scene that a crime is committed but having no knowledge of it. For instance, if you go into the same store with a friend but have no idea that he is planning to rob the store and shoot the clerk with a gun he has hidden, it would be difficult to prove that you had any involvement with helping, directing, encouraging, promoting, or soliciting the crime. But what would be the outcome in the same situation if you saw the gun and your friend tells you that he is going to rob the store but you do nothing out of fear. Are you then considered to be complicit? 

Deciding these issues is done on an individual case-by-case basis and demonstrates the importance of having a knowledgeable and experienced criminal defense attorney. You do not have the burden of proving your innocence; the prosecution has the burden of proving your guilt beyond a reasonable doubt. 

It is important to understand that under Texas law there are certain crimes that people have an affirmative duty to report if they have born witness to it. Such offenses generally include situations in which the witness owes a special duty to the victim. In cases of suspected child abuse or neglect, adults have a legal duty to report the offense to Child Protective Services. 

Ceja Law Firm PLLC Can Help

If you or a loved one has been charged with a crime in Texas, how you handle it can have a major impact on the rest of your life and can greatly affect you and your family. That is why it is so important to find a knowledgeable and experienced criminal defense attorney who understands the intricacies of the law. At Ceja Law Firm PLLC we work with our clients to help make a bad situation better. To learn more or to schedule a free consultation, contact us today!

Lawyer discussing a man's criminal case.

The Difference Between Criminal and Civil Cases in Texas

No matter if it is a criminal or civil case, no one wants to deal with the stressors surrounding it. However, it is important to know the differences between the two. In order to fully understand the ways in which criminal and civil cases differ in Texas, it is important to understand each on its own.

What is Criminal Law?

A criminal act is a crime that is committed against the state. However, this does not mean that individuals cannot be victims. A criminal charge occurs when the defendant is accused of committing a crime as listed in the Texas Penal Code. This includes:

  • Murder
  • Assault
  • Theft
  • Possession of a controlled substance/illegal drug
  • Drunk driving

Private citizens cannot file criminal charges, but rather these charges must be brought by the government and filed by a prosecutor. Similarly, a private citizen cannot drop criminal charges; only be a prosecutor. The individual charged is called the defendant and is entitled to his or her own defense attorney, though a private defense attorney is recommended. 

What is Civil Law?

Civil law allows for an individual or entity to sue for financial damages that have occurred due to the illegal actions of a defendant. An individual can file a civil lawsuit with the help of an attorney. Civil offenses include:

  • Damaging property
  • Causing bodily harm
  • Causing death

The damages that are requested are for the purpose of covering the damages that the defendant has allegedly caused. 

However, civil lawsuits can also include:

  • Granting divorce
  • Granting child custody
  • Disputes over property
  • Breach of contract
  • Defamation 
  • Bankruptcy 

Consequences

In a civil lawsuit – many of which are settled out of court in the form of a payment from the defendant to the plaintiff, who then drops the suit – restitution is requested. Restitution is the specific amount requested by the plaintiff. As mentioned, a plaintiff has the right to drop charges in a civil suit. It is estimated that up to 90 percent of civil cases are settled out of court. 

Civil cases do not include penalties such as jail time. This is not the case with criminal cases. 

Criminal convictions can lead to different punishments such as prison time, fines, parole, or probation. In the state of Texas, which is known for its harsher criminal punishment, capital punishment (execution of the defendant) is still available.

Burdens of Proof

While a judge alone commonly hears a civil case (though it can also include a jury), criminal cases usually consist of a trial by jury.

Additionally, the burden of proof in a civil case is not as high as that of a criminal case. In a civil case, an attorney may only need to prove the allegation by a “preponderance of the evidence” or by “clear and convincing standards.” However, in a criminal case, a prosecutor must prove that the defendant is guilty of committing the crime “beyond a reasonable doubt.” 

Though negotiation and settlement is common in a civil case, criminal cases do not allow for it in the same way. Instead, a criminal trial may involve a plea bargain agreement, which essentially allows the criminal defense attorney to seek a lesser charge or punishment for their client by offering a guilty plea before the completion of a trial. 

Though negotiations are up to the parties in a civil suit, in a criminal suit a plea bargain must be approved by the court, but can also be rejected. 

While they have their differences, a person is capable of facing both civil and criminal charges for the same offense. In such a situation, the prosecution (which always has the burden of proof) may be able to prove the defendant was guilty by a preponderance of the evidence but not beyond a reasonable doubt. 

Ceja Law Firm PLLC Can Help

If you or a loved one has been charged with a crime in Texas, how you handle it can have a major impact on the rest of your life and can greatly affect you and your family. That is why it is so important to find a knowledgeable and experienced criminal defense attorney who understands the intricacies of the law. At Ceja Law Firm PLLC we work with our clients to help make a bad situation better. To learn more or to schedule a free consultation, contact us today!

Ceja Law Firm PLLC discusses why drones can be a problem, and a solution, for crime.

Drones Prove to Be Both the Problem and Solution for Crime

The concept of drones is quite remarkable. Drones, which are remotely-controlled, unmanned aerial vehicles, have been widely available for public use for about five years. According to the Federal Aviation Administration, approximately 1.5 million drones – both commercial and recreational – have been registered in the U.S., though it does not account for those that remain unregistered or homemade. 

Drones Used to Commit Criminal Acts

While quite useful, sometimes drones are used to commit criminal acts. Unfortunately, there has not been much regulation implemented at the state level, often tying the hands of law enforcement. Since drones are more difficult to catch, they are often pretty appealing for criminals. 

Drones have already been used in an array of crimes, from attacking F.B.I. agents to dropping homemade bombs, to smuggling illegal drugs. To make matters worse, local and state authorities may not intercept them already in flight – even during the commission of a crime – since federal law restricts it. Considering that in 2015 the Border Patrol caught drones attempting to smuggle 28 pounds of heroin into the U.S., this is quite concerning. 

Though drones can often offer a deep knowledge of crimes if they are obtained, they are difficult to obtain. Additionally, the specialty of “drone forensics” has only just begun to grow. Regardless, those that are homemade may be programmed so that they are not identifiable, no matter the skill of the forensics team. 

Drones Used to Fight Crime and Protect the Public

But drones aren’t only used by criminals to commit crimes. They are now commonly used by law enforcement to catch criminals. Since they are considerably cheaper than helicopters, they are used in their place to alert the public or locate criminal suspects. With loudspeakers, law enforcement can now directly target and speak to sections of the public to warn them of danger in their area. Other drones are capable of using thermal imaging, which has been used to locate dangerous, wild animals. 

Additionally, because drones have a great aerial perspective and can maneuver to crime scenes, often separated by closed roads and backed up traffic, they are now being used at crime scenes and post-accident to take pictures and measurements later to be used for evidence. 

Ceja Law Firm PLLC Helps Those Who Have Been Charged with a Crime in Texas

If you or a loved one has been charged with a crime in Texas, it can have serious implications for the rest of your life. That’s why it is important to consult with a knowledgeable and experienced Criminal Defense Attorney. At Ceja Law Firm PLLC we understand the gravity of being charged – and convicted of a crime! We fight for the rights of our clients and strive to reduce – or even eliminate your charges. To learn more or to schedule a consultation, contact us today!

Ceja Law Firm discusses how animal cruelty may become a federal crime in the United States.

Animal Cruelty May Soon Become a Federal Crime

When it comes to the treatment of animals and the law, our pets have always been looked at as property; no different than a couch or a car. However, it finally seems that they are beginning to receive more well-deserved protection as the sentient and loving beings that we know them to be. The recent signing of the Preventing Animal Cruelty and Torture Act – if signed by President Trump – will make extreme acts of animal cruelty a federal felony. 

Florida Democratic Rep. Ted Deutch and Vern Buchanan (R-FL), co-sponsored the bill, which received great bipartisan support, was unanimously passed in both the House (by voice vote) and the Senate. “The torture of innocent animals is abhorrent and should be punished to the fullest extent of the law,” said Buchanan. “This is a milestone for pet owners and animal lovers across the country. For the first time, a national law has been passed by Congress to protect animals from cruelty and abuse.” Deutch agreed, explaining that the bill was simply “commonsense, bipartisan legislation” intended to show compassion to animals. 

The Speaker of the House, Nancy Pelosi, ceremoniously signed the bill. She took to Twitter to share her excitement. “Today, I was honored to sign @RepTedDeutch’s #PACTAct to make animal cruelty a federal offense. Our furry friends, Milo and Prudence were on hand to help me enroll this bipartisan legislation that will now go to the President’s desk!”

Animal Cruelty Views Evolved

Under the PACT Act, any acts of “crushing” animals are considered to be a federal crime. The bill recognizes crushing as the purposeful crushing, burning, drowning, suffocation, impalement, or serious bodily injury carried out against animals. 

In 2010, a law was implemented that made it illegal for anyone to post any videos of animal crushing on the Internet. These types of crushing videos commonly involved women in sharp high heels crushing small animals and killing them. Though the dissemination of these videos was made illegal in 1999, the Supreme Court overturned the decision worried that it would invade the people’s right to free speech. This new bill would build upon this old law, finding the underlying acts performed in those videos to be illegal. 

GOP Sen. Pat Toomey also expressed his excitement after Congress passed the bill. “Passing this legislation is a major victory in the effort to stop animal cruelty and make our communities safer,” he said. “Evidence shows that deranged individuals who harm animals often move on to committing acts of violence against people. It is appropriate that the federal government have strong animal cruelty laws and penalties.”

Ceja Law Firm PLLC Helps Those in Texas Who Have Been Charged with a Crime

If you or a loved one has been charged with a crime – regardless of a conviction – it can greatly impact your life. That is why it is so important to consult with a knowledgeable and experienced Criminal Defense Attorney. At Ceja Law Firm PLLC, we will fight to reduce or even eliminate your charges. To learn more or to schedule a consultation, contact us today!

Ceja Law Firm, PLLC discusses what you should do when you have an active warrant for your arrest and want to turn yourself in.

Warrant Out for Your Arrest? What to Know Before Turning Yourself In

Often times when we think about someone with an outstanding warrant, we picture old cowboy movies or dangerous fugitives on the run. Though sometimes that is the case, oftentimes it’s not quite like that. Those with an outstanding warrant often wonder as to whether or not they should turn themselves in or wait until the police catch them. 

As attorneys, we are obligated to tell you that you must turn yourself in immediately if you have an active warrant. Those who turn themselves in are usually entitled to receive a bond and may be out of custody while counsel is tending to the matter. 

Warrant Out for Your Arrest? Factors to Consider

If you decide to turn yourself in, it is important to consult with a knowledgeable and experienced criminal defense attorney. You or your family should make arrangements with a bail bondsman before turning yourself in. Although you are Constitutionally entitled to a bond in most cases, it is possible that you will not receive a bond. When this is the case it can take a few days for the attorney to be able to get on the court’s docket for a bond hearing. 

Fortunately, not receiving a bond is rarer these days. In Harris County and other counties, judges are more inclined to grant so-called “PR” bonds for many offenders, which makes it so the defendant does not actually have to post money to be let out of jail. 

If you are currently living in a state other than the state in which the warrant is issued, you may find yourself in jail for a longer period of time since you will be transported (also known as “extradited”) back to the state in question. This may take a bit – sometimes even weeks, and the process can be expedited if the defendant waives his right to contest extradition. Members of the U.S. military should immediately contact the individual who serves as their command in order for he or she to help you during the process of turning yourself in. 

Another factor to think about before turning yourself in is if it is the weekend or a holiday that occurs on either a Monday or Friday. If you turn yourself in at any of these times, and you do not receive a bond, you could be held until the following weekday when the court is once again open. 

Remember that choosing to ignore an outstanding warrant does not make it go away. Lawyers will not take your case until you have already turned yourself in on the warrant. The courts take into consideration whether you have taken the initiative to turn yourself in and take responsibility for your actions. This may even increase the likelihood of receiving bail prior to the trial. 

Ceja Law Firm PLLC Helps Those Who Have Outstanding Warrants in Texas

You can find out if you have a warrant out for your arrest by search the outstanding warrants lists provided by each city. If you or a loved one is facing an outstanding warrant, it is important that you know what is best to do. The experienced Criminal Defense Attorneys at Ceja Law Firm PLLC can help! To learn more or to schedule a consultation, contact us today!

Ceja Law Firm, PLLC discusses everything you should know about hate crimes.

What to Know About Hate Crimes

With one of the most divisive presidents in decades in office, it is not too surprising to understand the amount of division and the strong opinions that exist in our current political landscape. And while we are all entitled to our own thoughts and opinions, we should always think before we act. Unfortunately, sometimes people act before they think. If you have been charged with a crime that authorities have chosen to pursue as a hate crime, the stakes are even higher and the penalties even harsher. 

What Separates a Crime from a Hate Crime?

It is important for people to understand the difference between a crime and a hate crime. While a crime is a criminal act committed against another individual, a hate crime occurs when you carry out the same act based upon the personal bias of a perceived protected class. It does not matter whether or not the individual actually belongs to the protected class – just that the defendant believed them to. Protected classes under the law include race, religion, color, national origin, and sexual orientation.  

The following is an example of how a crime is raised to a hate crime. Let us imagine that you strike someone. This is considered the crime of assault and you can receive criminal charges for it. But if you struck the same person because of the fact that they are Muslim, you may be charged with a hate crime. 

Other Important Information on Hate Crimes

There are some other facts that each of us should understand about hate crimes.

  • Those who vandalize someone else’s property because of that person’s protected class may be charged with a hate crime.
  • It is not illegal to express hateful speech; it is illegal to express hateful speech along with threats or to also incite violence.  This may be considered a hate crime.
  • Terrorism that is carried out because of a bias against a group of people may be considered a hate crime 

The toughest part of charging – and convicting – someone with a hate crime is that hate crimes rest on intent. But since we are unable to be in anyone else’s head, it is difficult to know what drove someone else’s actions. Since there is a high interest in protecting the safety maintaining the peace of mind of communities, hate crimes carry much higher penalties than crimes. 

The Criminal Defense Attorneys at Ceja Law Firm PLLC Help Those Who Have Been Charged with a Hate Crime

If you or a loved one has been charged with a hate crime – regardless of a conviction – it can greatly impact your life. That is why it is so important to consult with a knowledgeable and experienced Criminal Defense Attorney, At Ceja Law Firm PLLC, we will fight to reduce or even eliminate your charges. To learn more or to schedule a consultation, contact us today!

Ceja Law Firm PLLC discusses what you should know about cyberbullying.

What to Know About the Crime of Cyberbullying

Unfortunately, bullying has become commonplace for most children – and even some adults. But if that isn’t bad enough, the advent of new technology and an ever-changing online landscape, cyberbullying has also continued to see an increase.

What is Cyberbullying?

Cyberbullying is any bullying that occurs over digital devices such as tablets, cell phones, and computers. It includes everything from posting and sending, to sharing mean, false, or harmful content about someone else. The sharing of personal or private information about someone else that causes them embarrassment or humiliation can also constitute cyberbullying. 

Essentially, in Texas cyberbullying is defined as anyone using any electronic device to engage in bullying or intimidation. In Texas, some of these acts apply only to students, while others apply to everyone within the state. 

Cyberbullying can occur in many places, such as over:

  • Email
  • Text Messages
  • Instant Messages
  • Social Media

With school now back in session, the safety of our children is still at the forefront of our minds. Though we strive to protect our children in every way possible, it can be very difficult to protect our kids from cyberbullying. Should you discover that your child’s behavior or attitude seems to have changed in a negative manner, this could be an indication that they are experiencing cyberbullying. 

Talk to Your Kids

It may not be the most enjoyable conversation, but it is of great importance that you discuss the issue of cyberbullying with your children and to check in with them on a somewhat regular basis. They should know and feel that they can come to you should they find anything upsetting or should anything dangerous or inappropriate transpire. Always enforce online safety rules with your kids and inform them that they should never respond to cyberbullying, but instead preserve the messages for an adult to see. It is also very important that you contact law enforcement should the cyberbullying increase or should there be any threats of physical violence. 

Penalties

Those who commit cyberbullying can be found guilty of other criminal charges:

  • Harassment – This occurs when someone:
    • Intentionally communicates an obscene proposal
    • Threatens
    • Coveys a false report, or
    • Makes a call or sends a message designed to harass, annoy, alarm, embarrass, or torment.

Harassment is either a Class A or B misdemeanor dependent upon the circumstances.

  • Online Impersonation – This occurs when someone:
    • Acts with the intent to harm, defraud, or intimidate and:
      • Creates a page on a website, or
      • Sends messages in the guise of someone else without that person’s permission

Online impersonation is either a felony or a misdemeanor depending upon the circumstances.

  • Disruptive Activities – This occurs when someone uses force or threats of force to:
    • Obstruct people from moving through a school
    • Prevent or attempt to prevent others from participating in school assemblies, or
    • Obstruct or restrain a person from entering or leaving a school. 

Disruptive activities are considered to be a Class B misdemeanor.

Ceja Law Firm PLLC Helps Those in Texas Who Have Been Charged with Cyberbullying

If you or a loved one has been accused of cyberbullying, it is a serious offense not to be taken lightly. The experienced Criminal Defense Attorneys at Ceja Law Firm PLLC can help! To learn more about cyberbullying or to schedule a consultation, contact us today!